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  • 实验室通风换气次数需要达到什么要求?
    来源:最新澳门网址大全 浏览: 发布日期:2020-07-24
    1 换气次数的选择
    1 Selection of ventilation rate
    《化工采暖通风和空调调节设计规范》规定化验室房间的更小换气量一般在6 次/h~8 次/h。 ASHRAE 规定验室内的整体换气次数应由下列风量之决定:从局部排风设备或其他房间排风所排出的总风量;带走房间热负荷所需的制冷风量;更小换气次数需求。在使用情况下,实验室的更小换气次数应维持6 次/h~10 次/h。
    According to the code for design of heating, ventilation and air conditioning in chemical industry, the minimum air exchange rate of laboratory room is generally 6 times / H ~ 8 times / h. According to ASHRAE, the overall air change rate in the laboratory shall be determined by the following air volume: the total air volume discharged from the local exhaust equipment or other rooms; the cooling air volume required to take away the heat load of the room; and the minimum air exchange rate requirement. Under the condition of use, the minimum ventilation rate of the laboratory should be maintained at 6 times / H ~ 10 times / h.
    在通常情况下>10 次/时房间换气次数被认为是合适的。但是当实验室内有可能产生高热负荷的分析设备,或房间内有较大量的局部排风时,则可能需要相应增大换气量。湿法化学室有通风柜,加热间有大量的加热炉。通风柜的计算方法则参照《化工采暖通风和空调调节设计规范》中对轻、中度危害或有危险的有害物质,在室内顶棚有补风的情况下,通风柜的操作口更小吸风面速度0.5m/s。对于通风柜的使用率,当通风柜的数量大于2个时,则应该取60%~70%同时使用率。加热炉则是以维持炉内加热温度的热平衡法则计算所需的排风量。通过以上可以计算出总的安全通风量,此外负荷计算的空调风量,还有更小换气次数10次进行比较,三者取值。
    In general, the room ventilation rate > 10 times / hour is considered to be appropriate. However, when there are analytical equipment with high heat load in the laboratory, or there is a large amount of local exhaust in the room, the air exchange rate may need to be increased accordingly. There are fume hoods in the wet chemical room and a large number of heating furnaces in the heating room. The calculation method of fume hood is referred to the design code for chemical heating, ventilation and air conditioning regulation for light, moderate or dangerous hazardous substances. Under the condition that the indoor ceiling has air supplement, the minimum suction surface speed of the operation port of the fume hood is 0.5m/s. For the utilization rate of fume hood, when the number of fume hood is more than 2, the simultaneous utilization rate of 60% ~ 70% should be taken. Heating furnace is to maintain the furnace heating temperature of the heat balance law to calculate the required exhaust air volume. Through the above, the total safe ventilation can be calculated. In addition, the air volume of air conditioning calculated by the load is compared with the minimum air change frequency of 10 times, and the maximum value of the three is taken.
    2 送风和排风形式
    2 air supply and exhaust forms
    《化工采暖通风和空调调节设计规范》规定化验室的排风量较大时,应设置室外新风补风系统,并计入新风负荷。
    "Code for design of heating, ventilation and air conditioning regulation of chemical industry" stipulates that when the exhaust air volume of the laboratory is large, outdoor fresh air supplement system should be set up and the fresh air load should be included.
    《科学实验室建筑设计规范》规定每个排风装置宜设独立的排风系统。同一个实验室内的所有排风装置宜合用一个排风系统。工作时间连续使用排风系统的实验室应设置送风系统,送风量宜为排风量的70%,并应根据工艺要求对送风进行空气净化处理。对于采暖地区,冬季应对送风进行加热。送风气流不应破坏实验室排风装置的正常工作。
    According to the code for architectural design of scientific laboratory, each exhaust device should be equipped with an independent exhaust system. All exhaust devices in the same laboratory should share one exhaust system. The laboratory that uses exhaust system continuously during working hours should be equipped with air supply system, the air supply volume should be 70% of the exhaust air volume, and the air supply should be purified according to the process requirements. For heating areas, the supply air should be heated in winter. The air supply should not damage the normal operation of the laboratory exhaust device.
    ASHRAE 规定所有从化学实验室内排出的气体均需直接排出室外,而不能循环利用。因此,除非化学实验室也有洁净要求,否则均需保持其相对于相邻区域为负压。而是否选择100%全新风送风系统,应做为实验室危险评估的一个重要部分。
    ASHRAE stipulates that all gases discharged from the chemical laboratory should be directly discharged out of the room, and can not be recycled. Therefore, unless the chemical laboratory also has cleaning requirements, it is necessary to keep the negative pressure relative to the adjacent area. Whether to choose 100% fresh air supply system should be an important part of laboratory risk assessment.
    实验室装修
    实验室各个单元间设置了独立的排风系统,排风都安装在屋顶上。湿法化学间和加热间由于产生有毒、腐蚀、高温的气体,必须采用全新风处理。其他如工作人员进行计算机分析的通用实验间和进行材料测试的恒温恒湿间,100%全新风送风系统并不是的选择。因为实验室不同的工艺职能,不一定要全新风通风或全新风空气处理。能满足工艺只能是首要的,100%的新风是针对通风柜的环境,而对于一般实验室循环空气处理能达到要求的,就不必要100%全新风。何况在全新风的空调环境下,能耗非常高。
    Each unit of the laboratory is equipped with an independent exhaust system, which is installed on the roof. Due to the toxic, corrosive and high temperature gas produced in the wet chemical room and heating room, fresh air treatment must be adopted. For example, the general laboratory for computer analysis and the constant temperature and humidity room for material testing, 100% fresh air supply system is not the only choice. Because of the different process functions of the laboratory, fresh air ventilation or fresh air treatment is not necessary. To meet the process can only be the first, 100% fresh air is for the environment of fume hood, and for the general laboratory circulating air treatment can meet the requirements, it is not necessary to 100% fresh air. Moreover, in the air-conditioning environment with fresh air, the energy consumption is very high.
    3 房间压差
    3 room differential pressure
    《化工采暖通风和空调调节设计规范》规定化验室应保持相对负压。
    According to the code for design of heating, ventilation and air conditioning in chemical industry, the relative negative pressure should be kept in the laboratory.
    ASHRAE 规定所有从化学实验室内排出的气体均需直接排出室外,而不能循环利用。因此,除非化学实验室也有洁净要求否则均需保持其相对于相邻区域为负压。
    ASHRAE stipulates that all gases discharged from the chemical laboratory should be directly discharged out of the room, and can not be recycled. Therefore, unless the chemical laboratory also has cleaning requirements, it is necessary to keep the negative pressure relative to the adjacent area.
    这个规定其实要根据具体的实施对象。本项目中恒温恒湿间需要严格的温度、湿度控制范围,应该设计成正压。因为如果设计成负压,则相邻区域的空气去进入,一方面可能破坏温、湿度的控制精;另一方面如果污染的空气进入,也可能造成安全问题。而对于湿法化学间和加热间,为防止有毒、腐蚀、高温的气体或挥发物散发到房间,甚至散发到其他的区域,设计成负压是必须的。实验室建筑的办公区域,应相对于走廊和实验室始终维持正压。实验室内气流应从低危险区域流向高危险区域,更终通过各类通风柜或加热设备排到室外。
    In fact, this provision should be based on the specific object of implementation. In this project, the constant temperature and humidity room needs strict temperature and humidity control range, which should be designed as positive pressure. Because if it is designed as negative pressure, the air in the adjacent area will enter. On the one hand, it may damage the control precision of temperature and humidity; on the other hand, if the polluted air enters, it may also cause safety problems. For wet chemical room and heating room, it is necessary to design negative pressure in order to prevent toxic, corrosive and high temperature gases or volatiles from spreading to the room or even other areas. The office area of the laboratory building should always maintain positive pressure relative to the corridor and laboratory. The air flow in the laboratory should flow from the low-risk area to the high-risk area, and finally to the outdoor through various fume hoods or heating equipment.
    4 控制系统
    4 control system
    控制应该把以上几项综合起来,可以满足整个实验室的房间压力、各房间压差、通风量、温湿度和各方面的安全控制要求,同时降低能耗。实验室内往往存在许多不利于人体健康的化学物质污染源,特别是有害气体,将其排除非常重要。但与此同时,能源往往会被大量的消耗,因而实验室的通风控制系统的要求从早期定风量,双稳态,变风量系统,到的适应性控制系统。所谓更为安全、舒适的环境,并要求更节能的方式是不能太过于奢望。系统响应迅速确保人身安全,以的精确性正确控制送排风的平衡和室内压力,提供的稳定性。尽量降低用户前期投入,同时减少用户在运行、能源消耗及维护等方面的费用。
    The control should integrate the above items, which can meet the requirements of room pressure, room pressure difference, ventilation rate, temperature and humidity and other aspects of the laboratory, and reduce energy consumption. There are many chemical pollution sources, especially harmful gases, which are harmful to human health. But at the same time, energy is often consumed, so the requirements of laboratory ventilation control system are from the early constant air volume, bistable, variable air volume system to the latest adaptive control system. The so-called most safe and comfortable environment, and the most energy-saving way is not too extravagant. The system responds quickly to ensure personal safety, accurately controls the balance of air supply and exhaust and indoor pressure with the highest accuracy to provide maximum stability. Try to reduce the user's early investment and reduce the user's expenses in operation, energy consumption and maintenance.
    ASHRAE 规定实验室控制一方面调整设备的温度和湿度控制;另一方面监控安全设施保护工作人员,用哪个系统,只
    ASHRAE stipulates that on the one hand, the laboratory control adjusts the temperature and humidity control of the equipment; on the other hand, it monitors the safety facilities to protect the staff, which system is used only
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